Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Homeostatic Feedback System and Glucose

Questions: 1.Why do cells need glucose? 2.Describe the homeostatic feedback system that would be activated in response to an elevated blood glucose level? 3.Vitamins and minerals are important for body health. Name sources and describe the role of calcium ions and vitamin D in maintaining bone health. What would be the consequence to bone health if there was a lack of either calcium or vitamin D in the body? Answers: 1. Glucose is amongst the bodys fuels. An energy rich monosaccharide sugar could be broken up in our cells in order to generate the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a small packet of the chemical energy, which powers the countless the biochemical reaction which often takes place in our body each second (Dupuis, Langenberg, Prokopenko, Saxena, Soranzo, Jackson Lindgren, 2010). The purpose of the glucose in the cell is to provide energy. Many of the nerve cell rely almost exclusively on the glucose for the energy they provide. This is the reason as to why maintenance of the blood glucose is important in order to functioning to the nerve system (Humphrey, Dufresne Schwartz, 2014). Glucose is also useful to the cell for the purpose of respiration in the cellular respiration where it is broken down to carbon dioxide, water and the ATP energy, which is useful for a long time. 2. This is the bodys mechanism to change its own variable back to an ideal state. When a person has increased glucose levels, the nervous system detects it (Scheuner, Song, McEwen, Liu, Laybutt, Gillespie Kaufman, 2001). The insulin secreting specialized (part of the endocrine system) cells of the pancreas detect when glucose levels rise above the normal homoeostatic level of about 90 mg/100ml per deciliter of blood due to a stimulus (Wynn, Chawla Pollard, 2013). In diabetic persons, glucose levels are reduced by loss through urine. However, in healthy persons the body uses two hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin is produced by the beta (Wynn, Chawla Pollard, 2013). The insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas are stimulated to release insulin to the blood. Most body cells as a result takes up more glucose: To be used as an energy source as insulin increases cellular intake of glucose utilization or get stored for future use. ATP is also generated. The liver and the skeletal mus cles cells also takes up glucose and stores it by forming glycogen. Insulin also stimulates and increases fat synthesis in adipose (fat) tissues and the liver cells (Wynn, Chawla Pollard, 2013). Due to these control mechanisms, the blood levels decrease to an established point along with the stimulus for insulin release decreases and body income to homeostasis. Additionally hormones that may affect blood glucose amounts consist of cortisol, epinephrine as well as growth hormone; these types of all raise the blood glucose levels. 3. Bone grow throughout our lifetimes. Calcium is a crucial mineral in a bones development process. Osteoclasts are body cells that assimilate old, weaker bones, which have significantly less calcium compared to once them, were new. Vitamin D models osteoblasts cells for new bones to develop (Wynn, Chawla Pollard, 2013). Ones cells are damaged by osteoclast the osteoblasts use calcium to generate new layers of bone cells to restore all of them. Calcium is assimilated by the gastrointestinal process, which is transferred on the surface of the bone throughout bone development (Humphrey, Dufresne Schwartz, 2014). Calcium additionally links to the organic surface of new bone cells as well as brings about them to harden. The skeletal method is mad strong by these kinds of hard layers of bone material and calcium. Certain minerals contained in bone are calcium fluoride, calcium phosphate, as well as calcium carbonate. The mineral above aid the prevention of bones from shattering under cr ushing force. Vitamin D protects your bones and plays the main role of stimulating absorption of calcium from the gut. Strong bones in children are built by vitamin D; adults also need it to keep their bones strong and healthy (Rodgers, Lerin, Haas, Gygi, Spiegelman Puigserver, 2005). Lack of enough vitamin D, may lead to lose of bones, lower bone density, and may easily lead to the bones breaking at an old age. References Dupuis, J., Langenberg, C., Prokopenko, I., Saxena, R., Soranzo, N., Jackson, A. U., ... Lindgren, C. M. (2010). New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk. Nature genetics, 42(2), 105-116. Humphrey, J. D., Dufresne, E. R., Schwartz, M. A. (2014). Mechanotransduction and extracellularmatrix homeostasis. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology, 15(12), 802- 812. Rodgers, J. T., Lerin, C., Haas, W., Gygi, S. P., Spiegelman, B. M., Puigserver, P. (2005). Nutrient control of glucose homeostasis through a complex of PGC-1 and SIRT1. Nature, 434(7029), 113- 118. Scheuner, D., Song, B., McEwen, E., Liu, C., Laybutt, R., Gillespie, P., ... Kaufman, R. J. (2001).Translational control is required for the unfolded protein response and in vivo glucose homeostasis. Molecular cell, 7(6), 1165-1176. Wynn, T. A., Chawla, A., Pollard, J. W. (2013). Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease. Nature, 496(7446), 445-455. Nature, 496(7446), 445-455

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